Tumor microenvironment
- Double-edged sword


Contemporary issue

  • Cellular/ soluble factors

– Balance score of pro-(MCP-1, IL-6, MMP) and anti-malignant (IP-10)   factors: 1.36~ 2.44 (Witz, IJCa 2003)


  • P-P interaction
  • Tumor heterogeneity vs. signal heterogeneity
  • Cross-talk (agonistic vs. antagonistic)

– TNF family

Proinflammatory cytokine as promalignant effect (since R. Virchow, 1863)

– TGF-β

> Inhibit normal mammary epithelail cells

> Enhance tumor cell invasion/mets:
loss of anti-proliferative role
– mutation in TGFBR
– inhibition of SMAD pathway
– suppressing anti-tumor immune response
– augmenting angiogenesis


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