Publications related to tumor microenvironment

Stromal fibroblasts from the interface zone of human breast carcinomas induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like state in breast cancer cells in vitro.
Gao MQ, Kim BG, Kang S, Choi YP, Park H, Kang KS, Cho NH.
J Cell Sci. 2010 Oct 15;123(Pt 20):3507-14.

In situ identification and localization of IGHA2 in the breast tumor microenvironment by mass spectrometry.
Kang S, Maeng H, Kim BG, Qing GM, Choi YP, Kim HY, Kim PS, Kim Y, Kim YH, Choi YD, Cho NH.
J Proteome Res. 2012 Sep 7;11(9):4567-74.

Invasive breast cancer induces laminin-332 upregulation and integrin β4 neoexpression in myofibroblasts to confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype during tissue remodeling.
Kim BG, Gao MQ, Choi YP, Kang S, Park HR, Kang KS, Cho NH.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012 Jun 6;14(3):R88.

Proteomic molecular portrait of interface zone in breast cancer.
Kang S, Kim MJ, An H, Kim BG, Choi YP, Kang KS, Gao MQ, Park H, Na HJ, Kim HK, Yun HR, Kim DS, Cho NH.
J Proteome Res. 2010 Nov 5;9(11):5638-45.

Molecular proteomics imaging of tumor interfaces by mass spectrometry.
Kang S, Shim HS, Lee JS, Kim DS, Kim HY, Hong SH, Kim PS, Yoon JH, Cho NH.
J Proteome Res. 2010 Feb 5;9(2):1157-64.

Laminin-332-rich tumor microenvironment for tumor invasion in the interface zone of breast cancer.
Kim BG, An HJ, Kang S, Choi YP, Gao MQ, Park H, Cho NH.
Am J Pathol. 2011 Jan;178(1):373-81.

CD24+ cells from hierarchically organized ovarian cancer are enriched in cancer stem cells.
Gao MQ, Choi YP, Kang S, Youn JH, Cho NH.
Oncogene. 2010 May 6;29(18):2672-80.

Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 correlates with poor prognostic variables in renal cell carcinoma.
Cho NH, Shim HS, Rha SY, Kang SH, Hong SH, Choi YD, Hong SJ, Cho SH.
Eur Urol. 2003 Nov;44(5):560-6.

Molecular portraits of intratumoral heterogeneity in human ovarian cancer.
Choi YP, Shim HS, Gao MQ, Kang S, Cho NH.
Cancer Lett. 2011 Aug 1;307(1):62-71.

Prognostic significance of paired epithelial cell adhesion molecule and E-cadherin in ovarian serous carcinoma.
Shim HS, Yoon BS, Cho NH.
Hum Pathol. 2009 May;40(5):693-8.

The gene expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
Shin JI, Song KS, Kim H, Cho NH, Kim J, Kim HS, Lee JS.
Br J Dermatol. 2011 Jun;164(6):1348-55.

CD24(+) ovary cancer cells exhibit an invasive mesenchymal phenotype.
Kang KS, Choi YP, Gao MQ, Kang S, Kim BG, Lee JH, Kwon MJ, Shin YK, Cho NH.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Mar 8;432(2):333-8.

Targeting ILK and β4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer.
Choi YP, Kim BG, Gao MQ, Kang S, Cho NH.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Oct 26;427(3):642-8.

Correlations of oral tongue cancer invasion with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.
Kim SH, Cho NH, Kim K, Lee JS, Koo BS, Kim JH, Chang JH, Choi EC.
J Surg Oncol. 2006 Mar 15;93(4):330-7.

TME “seed-soil”&“Ping-pong”

Stephen Paget seed-soil

  • 1994:  76 articles
  • 2004:  331 (3 folds/1decade)
  • 2010: 4861 (15 folds/ half decade)

Post-Paget era 

  • ‘Ping-pong’ experiments (IP Witz  Cancer Res, 1989)
    • BALB/c 3T3 in vitro- in vivo injection (ping)
    • Recultured from in vivo tumor (pong)
    • In vivo passage cells was considerably augmented as compared to that of in vitro maintained clonal ancestors.
    • In vivo “TME induces of pro-tumor effect.”
  • Class II cancer gene  (R. Sager PNAS, 1997)
    • Many of class II genes are regulated by TME.
    • Shifting focus from DNA to RNA

Non-tumor cells in TME are different from those in normal ME.

  • Structural and functional alteration in TME
  • Paracrine signal from tumor cell or normal cell
  • Promalignant factors in TME
  • Hypoxia (necrosis) in TME
  • Low glucose concentration in TME


  • Normalization of abnormal non-tumor constituents may reduce the malignancy phenotype?
  • Tumor reversion is, indeed, possible?
  • Not sufficiently cured  by tumor cell eradication alone?
  • Is there a hierarchy of interaction?